ROAD TO THE
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John Hughes came to America in 1817, and went to work as a gardener and stonemason at Mount St. Marys College and seminary in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Working there rekindled in him a childhood dream of becoming a priest, but the head of the seminary refused the gardeners request to enroll and study for the priesthood. Fortunately he impressed Mother Elizabeth Bayley Setoncanonized later as Americas first native-born saintand she interceded with Mount St. Marys. Hughes was ordained a priest in 1826 and moved to Philadelphia. Immediately he began to battle anti-Catholic bigotry.
Between 1820 and 1830, immigration had swelled the U.S. Catholic population 60 percent to 600,000, with no end in sight. The new immigrants were mostly Irishimpoverished, ignorant, unskilled country folk, with nothing in their experience to prepare them for success in the urban environs to which they were flocking. Hughes believed that the relentless barrage of anti-Catholic prejudice that greeted them in their new land was demoralizing the already disadvantaged immigrants and holding back their progress. (Stern 1997)
Hughes was determined to fight the nativists that oppressed the Catholic immigrants and began a spirited campaign against the bigotry under which the Catholics suffered. When a cholera epidemic hit Philadelphia in 1834, the Protestant nativists were quick to blame the Catholic immigrants. But Hughes worked tirelessly among the sick and dying and acidly noted how many Protestant ministers had fled the city while he and the Catholic Sisters of Charity... had cared for the cholera victims without regard for their own safety. In 1838, Hughes was made bishop in New York, a care of 60,000 Catholic souls in a city of 300,000. He immediately set about improving educational opportunities for New Yorks Catholics (Stern 1997).
In 1838, as now, the public schools were a political catspaw with which powerful interests tried to injure their political enemies. The New York Public School Society, with the help of state funding, was a Protestant organization that taught Protestantism in the schools using the Protestant Bible. Hughes (with the support of New Yorks 12,000 Jews) wanted an end to such sectarian education, and he wanted, above all, state aid for Catholic schools, just as the state had funded denominational schools before 1826 (with no one dreaming of calling such aid unconstitutional). But the Protestants preferred a policy of no state aid for denominational schools rather than allow any money to go to Catholic schools, and passed the Maclay Bill of 1842 [that] banned all religious instruction from public schools and provided no state money to denominational schools. (Stern 1997)
After this defeat, Hughes threw himself into building up the Catholic schools without help from the state. We shall have to build the schoolhouse first and the church afterward, he said expressing a sentiment that has inspired the Catholic Church in the United States ever since. By his death, the New York diocese boasted over 100 schools. It needed them. In 1845 the Irish potato crop failed, and between 1845 and 1860, over two million Irish crossed the Atlantic on the so-called coffin ships, suffering a mortality rate greater than African slaves endured on the Middle Passage. (Stern 1997)
Arriving in the United States, the Irish found that their problems had just begun. Those who had means moved into the interior. On the other hand, the destitute, the disabled, the broken down, the very young, the very old [stayed in New York. They were] the scattered debris of the Irish nation. The contemporary descriptions of the Irish in New York City are familiar to the modern ear. Family life had disintegrated; alcoholism and drugs were epidemic. Gangs roamed the streets, fighting one another and the nativists, but mostly preying on their fellow Irish, robbing houses and businesses in their neighborhoods. In 1850, an estimated 50,000 Irish prostitutes, the nymphs of the pave worked the streets. It was up to Hughes to do something about it. He decided to use the scattered debris as brick to build the Catholic Church. (Stern 1997)
Buying up abandoned Protestant churches in Irish wards, he taught the Irish a religion of personal responsibility, stressing confession to people who had often never received any religious education. Self-control and high personal standards were the key... Certain conduct was right, and other conduct was wrong. People must not govern their lives according to momentary feelings or the desire for instant gratification: they had to live up to a code of behavior that had been developed over thousands of years. But this was not a pinched and gloomy affair. Hughes taught that if you keep the commandments, God will be your protector, healer, advisor, and perfect personal friend. (Stern 1997) It was the same message that Protestant revivalists had been communicating to unchurched Americans.
Hughes also had a message for women, with the cult of the Virgin Mary directed at Catholic women, who outnumbered men by up to 20 percent in mid-century. Mary was Queen of Peace, Queen of Prophets, and Queen of Heaven. Hughes inspired Catholic women to take control of their lives, inspire their families and become a force for good. By the 1850s, they began to be major forces for moral rectitude, stability, and progress in Irish neighborhoods of the city. And the nuns, managing hospitals, schools, orphanages, and church societies demonstrated what women could aspire to. (Stern 1997)
By the 1890s, the Irish represented only 10 percent of arrests for violent crimes, down from 60 percent. Three-quarters of the police force was Irish. And almost a third of the citys teachers were Irish women. These lace-curtain Irish were often mocked by the press for their puritanical attitudes, but in the 1860s all this was in the future, so when he died shortly after the draft riots of 1863, Archbishop Hughes had felt he had been a failure. (Stern 1997)
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Click for Chapter 7: The Best Schools
[The Axial Age] highlights the conception of a responsible self... [that] promise[s] man for the first time that he can understand the fundamental structure of reality and through salvation participate actively in it.
Robert N Bellah, "Religious Evolution", American Sociological Review, Vol. 29, No. 3.
[To make] of each individual member of the army a soldier who, in character, capability, and knowledge, is self-reliant, self-confident, dedicated, and joyful in taking responsibility [verantwortungsfreudig] as a man and a soldier. — Gen. Hans von Seeckt
MacGregor Knox, Williamson Murray, ed., The dynamics of military revolution, 1300-2050
Civil Societya complex welter of intermediate institutions, including businesses, voluntary associations, educational institutions, clubs, unions, media, charities, and churchesbuilds, in turn, on the family, the primary instrument by which people are socialized into their culture and given the skills that allow them to live in broader society and through which the values and knowledge of that society are transmitted across the generations.
Francis Fukuyama, Trust
[W]hen I asked a liberal longtime editor I know with a mainstream [publishing] house for a candid, shorthand version of the assumptions she and her colleagues make about conservatives, she didn't hesitate. Racist, sexist, homophobic, anti-choice fascists, she offered, smiling but meaning it.
Harry Stein, I Can't Believe I'm Sitting Next to a Republican
[T]he Liberal, and still more the subspecies Radical... more than any other in these latter days seems under the impression that so long as he has a good end in view he is warranted in exercising over men all the coercion he is able[.]
Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State
These emerge out of long-standing moral notions of freedom, benevolence, and the affirmation of ordinary life... I have been sketching a schematic map... [of] the moral sources [of these notions]... the original theistic grounding for these standards... a naturalism of disengaged reason, which in our day takes scientistic forms, and a third family of views which finds its sources in Romantic expressivism, or in one of the modernist successor visions.
Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self
Families helped each other putting up homes and barns. Together, they built churches, schools, and common civic buildings. They collaborated to build roads and bridges. They took pride in being free persons, independent, and self-reliant; but the texture of their lives was cooperative and fraternal.
Michael Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism
For [the left] there is only the state and the individual, nothing in between. No family to rely on, no friend to depend on, no community to call on. No neighbourhood to grow in, no faith to share in, no charities to work in. No-one but the Minister, nowhere but Whitehall, no such thing as society - just them, and their laws, and their rules, and their arrogance.
David Cameron, Conference Speech 2008
As far as the Catholic Church is concerned, the principal focus of her interventions in the public arena is the protection and promotion of the dignity of the person, and she is thereby consciously drawing particular attention to principles which are not negotiable...
[1.] protection of life in all its stages, from the first moment of conception until natural death; [2.] recognition and promotion of the natural structure of the family... [3.] the protection of the right of parents to educate their children.
Pope Benedict XVI, Speech to European Peoples Party, 2006
No lesson seems to be so deeply inculcated by the experience of life as that you should never trust experts. If you believe doctors, nothing is wholesome: if you believe the theologians, nothing is innocent: if you believe the soldiers, nothing is safe. They all require their strong wine diluted by a very large admixture of insipid common sense.
Lord Salisbury, Letter to Lord Lytton