ROAD TO THE
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John Hughes came to America in 1817, and went to work as a gardener and stonemason at Mount St. Marys College and seminary in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Working there rekindled in him a childhood dream of becoming a priest, but the head of the seminary refused the gardeners request to enroll and study for the priesthood. Fortunately he impressed Mother Elizabeth Bayley Setoncanonized later as Americas first native-born saintand she interceded with Mount St. Marys. Hughes was ordained a priest in 1826 and moved to Philadelphia. Immediately he began to battle anti-Catholic bigotry.
Between 1820 and 1830, immigration had swelled the U.S. Catholic population 60 percent to 600,000, with no end in sight. The new immigrants were mostly Irishimpoverished, ignorant, unskilled country folk, with nothing in their experience to prepare them for success in the urban environs to which they were flocking. Hughes believed that the relentless barrage of anti-Catholic prejudice that greeted them in their new land was demoralizing the already disadvantaged immigrants and holding back their progress. (Stern 1997)
Hughes was determined to fight the nativists that oppressed the Catholic immigrants and began a spirited campaign against the bigotry under which the Catholics suffered. When a cholera epidemic hit Philadelphia in 1834, the Protestant nativists were quick to blame the Catholic immigrants. But Hughes worked tirelessly among the sick and dying and acidly noted how many Protestant ministers had fled the city while he and the Catholic Sisters of Charity... had cared for the cholera victims without regard for their own safety. In 1838, Hughes was made bishop in New York, a care of 60,000 Catholic souls in a city of 300,000. He immediately set about improving educational opportunities for New Yorks Catholics (Stern 1997).
In 1838, as now, the public schools were a political catspaw with which powerful interests tried to injure their political enemies. The New York Public School Society, with the help of state funding, was a Protestant organization that taught Protestantism in the schools using the Protestant Bible. Hughes (with the support of New Yorks 12,000 Jews) wanted an end to such sectarian education, and he wanted, above all, state aid for Catholic schools, just as the state had funded denominational schools before 1826 (with no one dreaming of calling such aid unconstitutional). But the Protestants preferred a policy of no state aid for denominational schools rather than allow any money to go to Catholic schools, and passed the Maclay Bill of 1842 [that] banned all religious instruction from public schools and provided no state money to denominational schools. (Stern 1997)
After this defeat, Hughes threw himself into building up the Catholic schools without help from the state. We shall have to build the schoolhouse first and the church afterward, he said expressing a sentiment that has inspired the Catholic Church in the United States ever since. By his death, the New York diocese boasted over 100 schools. It needed them. In 1845 the Irish potato crop failed, and between 1845 and 1860, over two million Irish crossed the Atlantic on the so-called coffin ships, suffering a mortality rate greater than African slaves endured on the Middle Passage. (Stern 1997)
Arriving in the United States, the Irish found that their problems had just begun. Those who had means moved into the interior. On the other hand, the destitute, the disabled, the broken down, the very young, the very old [stayed in New York. They were] the scattered debris of the Irish nation. The contemporary descriptions of the Irish in New York City are familiar to the modern ear. Family life had disintegrated; alcoholism and drugs were epidemic. Gangs roamed the streets, fighting one another and the nativists, but mostly preying on their fellow Irish, robbing houses and businesses in their neighborhoods. In 1850, an estimated 50,000 Irish prostitutes, the nymphs of the pave worked the streets. It was up to Hughes to do something about it. He decided to use the scattered debris as brick to build the Catholic Church. (Stern 1997)
Buying up abandoned Protestant churches in Irish wards, he taught the Irish a religion of personal responsibility, stressing confession to people who had often never received any religious education. Self-control and high personal standards were the key... Certain conduct was right, and other conduct was wrong. People must not govern their lives according to momentary feelings or the desire for instant gratification: they had to live up to a code of behavior that had been developed over thousands of years. But this was not a pinched and gloomy affair. Hughes taught that if you keep the commandments, God will be your protector, healer, advisor, and perfect personal friend. (Stern 1997) It was the same message that Protestant revivalists had been communicating to unchurched Americans.
Hughes also had a message for women, with the cult of the Virgin Mary directed at Catholic women, who outnumbered men by up to 20 percent in mid-century. Mary was Queen of Peace, Queen of Prophets, and Queen of Heaven. Hughes inspired Catholic women to take control of their lives, inspire their families and become a force for good. By the 1850s, they began to be major forces for moral rectitude, stability, and progress in Irish neighborhoods of the city. And the nuns, managing hospitals, schools, orphanages, and church societies demonstrated what women could aspire to. (Stern 1997)
By the 1890s, the Irish represented only 10 percent of arrests for violent crimes, down from 60 percent. Three-quarters of the police force was Irish. And almost a third of the citys teachers were Irish women. These lace-curtain Irish were often mocked by the press for their puritanical attitudes, but in the 1860s all this was in the future, so when he died shortly after the draft riots of 1863, Archbishop Hughes had felt he had been a failure. (Stern 1997)
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Click for Chapter 7: The Best Schools
When we began first to preach these things, the people appeared as awakened from the sleep of agesthey seemed to see for the first time that they were responsible beings, and that a refusal to use the means appointed was a damning sin.
Finke, Stark, The Churching of America, 1776-1990
In 1911... at least nine million of the 12 million covered by national insurance were already members of voluntary sick pay schemes. A similar proportion were also eligible for medical care.
Green, Reinventing Civil Society
We have met with families in which for weeks together, not an article of sustenance but potatoes had been used; yet for every child the hard-earned sum was provided to send them to school.
E. G. West, Education and the State
Law being too tenuous to rely upon in [Ulster and the Scottish borderlands], people developed patterns of settling differences by personal fighting and family feuds.
Thomas Sowell, Conquests and Cultures
The primary thing to keep in mind about German and Russian thought since
1800 is that it takes for granted that the Cartesian, Lockean or Humean scientific and
philosophical conception of man and nature... has been shown by indisputable evidence to be
F.S.C. Northrop, The Meeting of East and West
Inquiry does not start unless there is a problem... It is the problem and its
characteristics revealed by analysis which guides one first to the relevant facts and then,
once the relevant facts are known, to the relevant hypotheses.
F.S.C. Northrop, The Logic of the Sciences and the Humanities
But I saw a man yesterday who knows a fellow who had it from a chappie
that said that Urquhart had been dipping himself a bit recklessly off the deep end.
Dorothy L. Sayers, Strong Poison
I mean three systems in one: a predominantly market economy; a polity respectful of the rights of the individual to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and a system of cultural institutions moved by ideals of liberty and justice for all.
In short, three dynamic and converging systems functioning as one: a democratic polity, an economy based on markets and incentives, and a moral-cultural system which is plural and, in the largest sense, liberal.
Michael Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism
The incentive that impels a man to act is always some uneasiness...
But to make a man act [he must have]
the expectation that purposeful behavior has the power to remove
or at least to alleviate the felt uneasiness.
Ludwig von Mises, Human Action
[In the] higher Christian churches... they saunter through the liturgy like Mohawks along a string of scaffolding who have long since forgotten their danger. If God were to blast such a service to bits, the congregation would be, I believe, genuinely shocked. But in the low churches you expect it every minute.
Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm