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  An American Manifesto
Friday October 24, 2014 
by Christopher Chantrill Follow chrischantrill on Twitter

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ROAD TO THE

MIDDLE CLASS

Contents

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Bibliography

Chapter 6:
Popular Religion in the Nineteenth Century

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John Hughes came to America in 1817, and “went to work as a gardener and stonemason at Mount St. Mary’s College and seminary in Emmitsburg, Maryland.  Working there rekindled in him a childhood dream of becoming a priest,” but the head of the seminary refused the gardener’s request to enroll and study for the priesthood.  Fortunately he impressed Mother Elizabeth Bayley Seton—canonized later as America’s first native-born saint—and she interceded with Mount St. Mary’s.  Hughes was ordained a priest in 1826 and moved to Philadelphia.  Immediately he began to battle anti-Catholic bigotry.

Between 1820 and 1830, immigration had swelled the U.S. Catholic population 60 percent to 600,000, with no end in sight.  The new immigrants were mostly Irish—impoverished, ignorant, unskilled country folk, with nothing in their experience to prepare them for success in the urban environs to which they were flocking.  Hughes believed that the relentless barrage of anti-Catholic prejudice that greeted them in their new land was demoralizing the already disadvantaged immigrants and holding back their progress. (Stern 1997)

   Hughes was determined to fight the nativists that oppressed the Catholic immigrants and began a spirited campaign against the bigotry under which the Catholics suffered.  When a cholera epidemic hit Philadelphia in 1834, the Protestant nativists were quick to blame the Catholic immigrants.  But Hughes “worked tirelessly among the sick and dying” and acidly noted how many Protestant ministers had fled the city while he and the “Catholic Sisters of Charity... had cared for the cholera victims without regard for their own safety.”  In 1838, Hughes was made bishop in New York, a care of 60,000 Catholic souls in a city of 300,000.  He immediately set about improving educational opportunities for New York’s Catholics (Stern 1997).

In 1838, as now, the public schools were a political catspaw with which powerful interests tried to injure their political enemies.  The New York Public School Society, with the help of state funding, was a Protestant organization that taught Protestantism in the schools using the Protestant Bible.  “Hughes (with the support of New York’s 12,000 Jews) wanted an end to such sectarian education, and he wanted, above all, state aid for Catholic schools, just as the state had funded denominational schools before 1826 (with no one dreaming of calling such aid unconstitutional).  But the Protestants preferred a policy of no state aid for denominational schools rather than allow any money to go to Catholic schools, and passed “the Maclay Bill of 1842 [that] banned all religious instruction from public schools and provided no state money to denominational schools.” (Stern 1997)

After this defeat, Hughes threw himself into building up the Catholic schools without help from the state.  “‘We shall have to build the schoolhouse first and the church afterward,’ he said” expressing a sentiment that has inspired the Catholic Church in the United States ever since.  By his death, the New York diocese boasted over 100 schools.  It needed them.  In 1845 the Irish potato crop failed, and between 1845 and 1860, over two million Irish crossed the Atlantic on the so-called “coffin ships,” suffering a mortality rate greater than African slaves endured on the Middle Passage. (Stern 1997)

Arriving in the United States, the Irish found that their problems had just begun.  Those who had means moved into the interior.  “On the other hand, the destitute, the disabled, the broken down, the very young, the very old [stayed in New York.  They were] the scattered debris of the Irish nation.”  The contemporary descriptions of the Irish in New York City are familiar to the modern ear.  Family life had disintegrated; alcoholism and drugs were epidemic.  Gangs roamed the streets, fighting one another and the nativists, but mostly preying on their fellow Irish, robbing houses and businesses in their neighborhoods.  In 1850, an estimated 50,000 Irish prostitutes, the “nymphs of the pave” worked the streets.  It was up to Hughes to do something about it.  He decided to use the “scattered debris” as brick to build the Catholic Church.  (Stern 1997)

Buying up abandoned Protestant churches in Irish wards, he taught the Irish a religion of personal responsibility, stressing confession to people who had often never received any religious education.  “Self-control and high personal standards were the key... Certain conduct was right, and other conduct was wrong.  People must not govern their lives according to momentary feelings or the desire for instant gratification: they had to live up to a code of behavior that had been developed over thousands of years.”  But this was not “a pinched and gloomy affair.”  Hughes taught that “if you keep the commandments, God will be your protector, healer, advisor, and perfect personal friend.” (Stern 1997)  It was the same message that Protestant revivalists had been communicating to unchurched Americans.

Hughes also had a message for women, with the cult of the Virgin Mary directed at Catholic women, who outnumbered men by up to 20 percent in mid-century.  “Mary was Queen of Peace, Queen of Prophets, and Queen of Heaven.”  Hughes inspired Catholic women to take control of their lives, inspire their families and become a force for good.  “By the 1850s, they began to be major forces for moral rectitude, stability, and progress in Irish neighborhoods of the city.”  And the nuns, “managing hospitals, schools, orphanages, and church societies” demonstrated what women could aspire to.  (Stern 1997)

By the 1890s, the Irish represented only 10 percent of arrests for violent crimes, down from 60 percent.  “Three-quarters of the police force was Irish.” And almost a third of the city’s teachers were Irish women. These lace-curtain Irish were often mocked by the press for their “puritanical” attitudes, but in the 1860s all this was in the future, so when he died shortly after the draft riots of 1863, Archbishop Hughes had felt he had been a failure.  (Stern 1997)


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Click for Chapter 7: The Best Schools

 

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 TAGS


Action

The incentive that impels a man to act is always some uneasiness... But to make a man act [he must have] the expectation that purposeful behavior has the power to remove or at least to alleviate the felt uneasiness.
Ludwig von Mises, Human Action


Chappies

“But I saw a man yesterday who knows a fellow who had it from a chappie that said that Urquhart had been dipping himself a bit recklessly off the deep end.”  —Freddy Arbuthnot
Dorothy L. Sayers, Strong Poison


China and Christianity

At first, we thought [the power of the West] was because you had more powerful guns than we had. Then we thought it was because you had the best political system. Next we focused on your economic system. But in the past twenty years, we have realized that the heart of your culture is your religion: Christianity.
David Aikman, Jesus in Beijing


Churches

[In the] higher Christian churches... they saunter through the liturgy like Mohawks along a string of scaffolding who have long since forgotten their danger. If God were to blast such a service to bits, the congregation would be, I believe, genuinely shocked. But in the low churches you expect it every minute.
Annie Dillard, Holy the Firm


Civil Society

“Civil Society”—a complex welter of intermediate institutions, including businesses, voluntary associations, educational institutions, clubs, unions, media, charities, and churches—builds, in turn, on the family, the primary instrument by which people are socialized into their culture and given the skills that allow them to live in broader society and through which the values and knowledge of that society are transmitted across the generations.
Francis Fukuyama, Trust


Class War

In England there were always two sharply opposed middle classes, the academic middle class and the commercial middle class. In the nineteenth century, the academic middle class won the battle for power and status... Then came the triumph of Margaret Thatcher... The academics lost their power and prestige and... have been gloomy ever since.
Freeman Dyson, “The Scientist as Rebel”


Conservatism

Conservatism is the philosophy of society. Its ethic is fraternity and its characteristic is authority — the non-coercive social persuasion which operates in a family or a community. It says ‘we should...’.
Danny Kruger, On Fraternity


Conservatism's Holy Grail

What distinguishes true Conservatism from the rest, and from the Blair project, is the belief in more personal freedom and more market freedom, along with less state intervention... The true Third Way is the Holy Grail of Tory politics today - compassion and community without compulsion.
Minette Marrin, The Daily Telegraph


Conversion

“When we received Christ,” Phil added, “all of a sudden we now had a rule book to go by, and when we had problems the preacher was right there to give us the answers.”
James M. Ault, Jr., Spirit and Flesh


Democratic Capitalism

I mean three systems in one: a predominantly market economy; a polity respectful of the rights of the individual to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and a system of cultural institutions moved by ideals of liberty and justice for all. In short, three dynamic and converging systems functioning as one: a democratic polity, an economy based on markets and incentives, and a moral-cultural system which is plural and, in the largest sense, liberal.
Michael Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism


 

©2007 Christopher Chantrill