ROAD TO THE
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Ill make sure they go to the best schools, first grade to collegeMary Johnston
EVERYONE IS IN FAVOR of education. But what do they mean? When Mary Johnston talks about education she thinks in terms of the best schools, first grade to college for the education of her children. Yet any student of the history of education quickly learns that the big issue in education is not the education of ones own children, but the education of other peoples children. Folks are mightily concerned about other peoples children: that they might be neglected, or they might turn out all wrong. They might, for example, turn to crime or fuel a revolution. To reduce these threats they propose to award the government a substantial responsibility in the rearing and education of other peoples children. All in all, what people want out of education is resources for the education of their own children and rules for the education of other peoples children. It was in the nineteenth century that these notions were most recently fought out in politics. We are still living with the results of those battles.
Modern American opinion about education assumes a Year Zero some time in the mid-nineteenth century, the glorious day when the activists for modern universal education began their agitation for tax-paid free-at-the-point-of-service government-run schools. The time before Year Zero is treated as prehistoric, in England a time of Ragged Schools, one-room schoolhouses, Dotheboys Hall and Wackford Squeers, and opportunity denied to the poor; in the United States this time is reported as a time of disorganization, of old field schools in the rural areas and of segregation between fee-paying academies for the middle class and charity schools for the poor. Naturally, the activists for centralized elite-controlled education were anxious to point to the inadequacy spontaneous bottom-up education. Conditions in the prehistoric time before Year Zero were deplorable and something had to be done. But what was education really like before the modern era of centralized government-run education? What kind of education did ordinary people seek out for themselves before the elite took over? And why has the modern elite taken such an interest in the education of children?
Perhaps it is best to start by listening to an uneducated voice. The National Geographic recently did this in an article on life in Chinas Gobi desert at the end of the twentieth century. After traveling for three days with 15 camels and five horses, and treating the reader to disquisitions about desertification and the age of sand dunes, the author arrived at the home of an old woman living in the sand sea of the Gobi. She didnt understand the outside world, she said:
I only know eating, drinking, and tending animals. This is what my parents did. Their parents. The young people today, once they leave the [Gobi], they never return. I dont blame them. The life of herding is coming to an end. Work in cities is the future. (Webster 2002)
The reason the young people of the Gobi dont return is that they all go to boarding school from first to ninth grade, only returning home in the summer. The best students go on to high school, or even college. To live the life of a Mongol sheepherder in the manner of their parents and their parents parents does not need nine years of boarding school. It requires them instead to grow up in the yurt, learning and doing with their parents. But nine years of boarding school and a certificate of literacy and numeracy disqualifies them for herding and certifies them instead for basic competence in the city. So they leave the homes of their fathers and join the global migration to the city. Once a child has received a primary education, she is no longer a peasant or sheepherder, she belongs to the city.
For the herders of the future there is no sense in going to school. For the cotton-pickers of the future there is no sense in going to school. There probably is no sense in going to school for anyone planning to follow in their parents trade. Schools exist to teach people things that their parents cant teach them. For the peasant, school gives his children a chance to make it in the city. For the illiterate costermonger in Victorian London, it gave his sons the chance to move off the street and sell something that needed a bit of book-learning and bookkeeping. For Mary Johnston of Rock Hill, it gives her children the chance to join the confident classes in Charlotte for whom life is not a grim struggle but a creative adventure, not meat-and-potatoes but nouvelle cuisine. Education, then, is all about embourgeoisment, the making of a citizen, one who lives and works in the city. If you seek education, you should look in the city.
It the cities of the ancient world, the educational offerings varied. It is not surprising to find education in the city states of ancient Greece. In ancient Athens, parents taught their children at home until they were old enough to go off to school, generally at six or seven. Years of schooling varied, according to the income and interests of the parents, but anyone could open a school, and parents were able to select a school for their children that met their needs and their pocketbook. Fees were paid by the month, and poor people generally kept their children home during the month in which national holidays kept the schools closed for two weeks. The schools taught gymnastics, music, and literacy. Of course, poor and middle class parents could not afford as much schooling as the rich, and by the time their children reached their early teens they apprenticed them to a tradesman. But education might continue, with the tradesman paid to teach his prentices subjects stipulated in the apprenticeship agreement. (Coulson 1999 p40) Overall literacy in Athens was estimated at about fifty percent. The state played little role in schooling, except in mandatory military training.
Sparta, of course, developed a state-run education system. At seven, all male children were separated from their families and sent to boarding school where education consisted of sports, endurance training, and fighting. Exposure to letters was minimal, and the teaching of rhetoric, the pride of Athens, was a punishable offense. Boys were deliberately fed inadequate meals, and encouraged to steal in order to obtain enough to eat.(Coulson 1999 p46) Literacy in Sparta was considered by contemporaries to be the lowest in the Greek world.
Education in ancient Rome was curiously warped. In the days of the Republic, classes were mainly taught in private schools by Greek slaves where discipline was harsh, and teaching styles unimaginative. The syllabus included reading, writing, and simple counting, and for those who could afford secondary education, there was rhetoric and the Greek classics. Under the empire, schooling began to come under political influence. Augustus suppressed teachers critical of the regime and by the fourth century, Julian Augustus required that teachers be certified. Teachers earned special benefits in return for faithful service to the emperor, and gradually earned more and more privileges in exchange for appropriate praise of the emperor. (Coulson 1999 p55)
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Click for Chapter 8: Mutual Aid
[The Axial Age] highlights the conception of a responsible self... [that] promise[s] man for the first time that he can understand the fundamental structure of reality and through salvation participate actively in it.
Robert N Bellah, "Religious Evolution", American Sociological Review, Vol. 29, No. 3.
[To make] of each individual member of the army a soldier who, in character, capability, and knowledge, is self-reliant, self-confident, dedicated, and joyful in taking responsibility [verantwortungsfreudig] as a man and a soldier. — Gen. Hans von Seeckt
MacGregor Knox, Williamson Murray, ed., The dynamics of military revolution, 1300-2050
Civil Societya complex welter of intermediate institutions, including businesses, voluntary associations, educational institutions, clubs, unions, media, charities, and churchesbuilds, in turn, on the family, the primary instrument by which people are socialized into their culture and given the skills that allow them to live in broader society and through which the values and knowledge of that society are transmitted across the generations.
Francis Fukuyama, Trust
[W]hen I asked a liberal longtime editor I know with a mainstream [publishing] house for a candid, shorthand version of the assumptions she and her colleagues make about conservatives, she didn't hesitate. Racist, sexist, homophobic, anti-choice fascists, she offered, smiling but meaning it.
Harry Stein, I Can't Believe I'm Sitting Next to a Republican
[T]he Liberal, and still more the subspecies Radical... more than any other in these latter days seems under the impression that so long as he has a good end in view he is warranted in exercising over men all the coercion he is able[.]
Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State
These emerge out of long-standing moral notions of freedom, benevolence, and the affirmation of ordinary life... I have been sketching a schematic map... [of] the moral sources [of these notions]... the original theistic grounding for these standards... a naturalism of disengaged reason, which in our day takes scientistic forms, and a third family of views which finds its sources in Romantic expressivism, or in one of the modernist successor visions.
Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self
Families helped each other putting up homes and barns. Together, they built churches, schools, and common civic buildings. They collaborated to build roads and bridges. They took pride in being free persons, independent, and self-reliant; but the texture of their lives was cooperative and fraternal.
Michael Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism
For [the left] there is only the state and the individual, nothing in between. No family to rely on, no friend to depend on, no community to call on. No neighbourhood to grow in, no faith to share in, no charities to work in. No-one but the Minister, nowhere but Whitehall, no such thing as society - just them, and their laws, and their rules, and their arrogance.
David Cameron, Conference Speech 2008
As far as the Catholic Church is concerned, the principal focus of her interventions in the public arena is the protection and promotion of the dignity of the person, and she is thereby consciously drawing particular attention to principles which are not negotiable...
[1.] protection of life in all its stages, from the first moment of conception until natural death; [2.] recognition and promotion of the natural structure of the family... [3.] the protection of the right of parents to educate their children.
Pope Benedict XVI, Speech to European Peoples Party, 2006
No lesson seems to be so deeply inculcated by the experience of life as that you should never trust experts. If you believe doctors, nothing is wholesome: if you believe the theologians, nothing is innocent: if you believe the soldiers, nothing is safe. They all require their strong wine diluted by a very large admixture of insipid common sense.
Lord Salisbury, Letter to Lord Lytton