ROAD TO THE
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[W]e may say that the movement of the progressive societies has hitherto been a movement from Status to Contract. Sir Henry Maine
IN THE COUNTRY, people live under power. In the city, people live under law. To pass from the culture of the countryside with its power holding landowners and assimilate to the city with its laws and lawyers is the greatest challenge to the pilgrim on the road to the middle class. It means going to a lawyer, instead of going for your gun. It means having faith in the law to smoke out the perjurer, instead of smoking her. It means ignoring the meddler instead of beating his brains in. The challenge is dramatized in August Wilsons Jitney, a play about life on the cusp of the transition from the culture of power to the culture of law.
Jitney follows five men working jitneys, illegal cabs, out of a decaying storefront in Pittsburghs black Hill District. The three older men are retirees, earning extra money with their automobiles. Then theres the young kid trying to get out of the projects, and the drunk, a once-skilled tailor. The jitney station is run by Jim Becker, a retired steelworker from J&L.
Its a simple business. Customers call in on the pay phone and the driver whos been waiting longest takes the call and the fare. The drivers drive their own cars and pay Becker a monthly fee.
Becker is the poster boy for the American Dream. He worked hard at the mill all his life, and now owns his own home with his wife of twenty years. Hes a deacon at his church.
But twenty years ago his son took up with a white girl, daughter of a vice-president at J&L. Discovered in a compromising position by her father, she accused Beckers boy of raping her. Becker went to get a lawyer. Beckers boy went to get a gun and killed her. Her son condemned to die, Beckers wife stopped eating, withered away, and died.
His hopes dashed by the disgrace of his son the murderer and the death of his wife, Becker soldiers on, marrying again, buying his own modest home, and becoming deacon of his church. When his boy returns from jail full of rage twenty years later, his death sentence commuted, his father turns him away. He cannot open his heart to the boy who stilled his mothers heart and maintains, with the last shreds of youthful defiance, that he killed the girl so that they would have a real crime to pin on him. Beckers boy wanted to be a big man, not the small man his father proved to be when, two months late with the rent, he truckled to the shouting of his landlord. But Becker kept his faith with the city, despite everything, and when the city wants to demolish the jitney station and his livelihood to make way for urban renewal, he still goes to get a lawyer, and not to get his gun.
Why should a retired black steelworker like Jim Becker have faith in lawyers? Why should he come to believe in the law instead of the fist? Perhaps even more remarkable than the faith in monotheistic religion, the transition from belief in the power gods of nature to the loving God of Christianity, is the transition from the culture of power to the culture of law. It is a miracle for a man like Jim Becker to place his faith in the law. When the state grabbed his gifted son, branded him as a murderer, and locked him away, Becker was faced with a choice. He could continue his faith in the law against all his instincts of family loyalty, or he could throw it all up in disappointment and regress to the despair of alcohol or oppression politics, grumbling and raging from a bar stool against The Man. That he doesnt lose his faith, but stumbles on with life, buying his own home and becoming a deacon in his church, makes him into a saint. For he renounces family, the tie of clan, in favor of society, the modern abstraction invented to replace the instinctive loyalty to blood and kin.
The difference between the culture of the countryside and the culture of the city is between power and law, between a clan ordered by instinctive tradition and power and society organized in self-conscious tradition and rule. The country is ruled by instinct and power, the city is ruled by law and by purpose. In the face-to-face society of the village, people lived in a time before ego. They did not conceive of themselves apart from their collective identity in a family, clan, village, or as the people that had lived on their land since time immemorial. Writing in the nineteenth century Sir Henry Maine had made this clear. Ancient society was not, as we consider it today, a collection of individuals... [It] was a collection of families. (Maine 1972 p74) The concept of family was close to the modern concept of corporation, as an entity perpetual and inextinguishable. And people experienced their tribe as eternal, having occupied its land from the earliest times when it was first created by the gods. Calling themselves the People they lived an unreflective tradition, the Way that represented the accumulated tradition of their tribe. There was no right and wrong, but deviating from the Way was understood as madness. The modern idea of change was meaningless, for people lived to propitiate the higher powers: the village elders or the angry gods. Punishment for violation of the Way in ancient society was not executed on a guilty individual, but on a whole family. This was done not as a punishment to send a message to would-be malefactors, but because the tribe experienced the family as a single entity. The family was responsible for the actions of its members, just as a modern corporation is seen as being responsible for the actions of its officers and employees. Kinship was considered the only possible basis for society. A woman left her parents family upon marriage and entered the family of her husband. The kinship concept extended from family to clan, and from clan to tribe. The assumption was made, although it amounted in many cases to a legal fiction, that all members of a family, or clan, or tribe were related to a single ancestor. Consanguinity, or the fiction of consanguinity, was the basis for successful society.
As the modern (and perpetual) corporation is ruled by a Chief Executive Officer, the ancient perpetual family was ruled by a Father. The clan of which the family was a part would have its father, and the tribe its father. These fathers led by power, their mana, the nameless, wordless power that people can sense and instinctively defer to. It is the power that people sense when the President of the United States walks into a room.
The most well documented ancient father accessible to modern readers is the Roman father, who enjoyed an authority over his family known as Patria Potestas, the power of the father. At the beginning of the Roman republic, his power included the power of life and death over his children, the right of uncontrolled corporal punishment, to give a wife to a son, to divorce children from the family. So when the city of Rome was small, it still exhibited the culture of a village, a community of families. But by the end of the Roman Empire, these rights had collapsed. The right to corporal punishment had become the right to bring domestic offenses to a magistrate; the privilege of dictating marriage [had] declined into a conditional veto. (Maine 1972 p82) The law had grown up and was now interfering with the traditional rights of the family and its father. The city had developed its written law and its judges, and had displaced the traditional power of the father.
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Click for Chapter 10: Explaining the Culture War
But I saw a man yesterday who knows a fellow who had it from a chappie
that said that Urquhart had been dipping himself a bit recklessly off the deep end.
Dorothy L. Sayers, Strong Poison
Civil Societya complex welter of intermediate institutions, including businesses, voluntary associations, educational institutions, clubs, unions, media, charities, and churchesbuilds, in turn, on the family, the primary instrument by which people are socialized into their culture and given the skills that allow them to live in broader society and through which the values and knowledge of that society are transmitted across the generations.
Francis Fukuyama, Trust
Tear down theory, poetic systems... No more rules, no more models... Genius conjures up
rather than learns... Victor Hugo
César Graña, Bohemian versus Bourgeois
We have met with families in which for weeks together, not an article of sustenance but potatoes had been used; yet for every child the hard-earned sum was provided to send them to school.
E. G. West, Education and the State
When we began first to preach these things, the people appeared as awakened from the sleep of agesthey seemed to see for the first time that they were responsible beings, and that a refusal to use the means appointed was a damning sin.
Finke, Stark, The Churching of America, 1776-1990
When we received Christ, Phil added, all of a sudden we now had a rule book to go by, and when we had problems the preacher was right there to give us the answers.
James M. Ault, Jr., Spirit and Flesh
A writer who says that there are no truths, or that all truth is merely relative, is asking you not to believe him. So dont.
Roger Scruton, Modern Philosophy
As far as the Catholic Church is concerned, the principal focus of her interventions in the public arena is the protection and promotion of the dignity of the person, and she is thereby consciously drawing particular attention to principles which are not negotiable...
[1.] protection of life in all its stages, from the first moment of conception until natural death; [2.] recognition and promotion of the natural structure of the family... [3.] the protection of the right of parents to educate their children.
Pope Benedict XVI, Speech to European Peoples Party, 2006
At first, we thought [the power of the West] was because you had more powerful guns than we had. Then we thought it was because you had the best political system. Next we focused on your economic system. But in the past twenty years, we have realized that the heart of your culture is your religion: Christianity.
David Aikman, Jesus in Beijing
But the only religions that have survived are those which support property and the family.
Thus the outlook for communism, which is both anti-property and anti-family, (and also anti-religion), is not promising.
F.A. Hayek, The Fatal Conceit