ROAD TO THE
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When we received Christ, Phil added, all of a sudden we now had a rule book to go by, and when we had problems the preacher was right there to give us the answers. James M. Ault, Jr.
DURING THE LAST HALF of the twentieth century, the United States experienced a period of unusual spiritual ferment and renewal. As we have seen, the spiritual outburst is a normal and recurrent phenomenon in post-Columbian North America. Colonial North America began with a Puritan Awakening; the United States was born of the First Great Awakening; the Civil War was provoked by a Second Great Awakening, and the century of the welfare state was inspired by a Third Great Awakening. According to William G. McLoughlin and Robert William Fogel, these Awakenings represent a spontaneous upwelling of human spiritual torment, a shared feeling that something is amiss, neither specifically personal or social. According to their taxonomy, the present ferment deserves the title of the Fourth Great Awakening.
The sociology of religion developed by Rodney Stark also comprehends this continual upwelling of religious enthusiasm. His Theory of Religion presents his approach:
All humans share the desire for very general rewards, such as everlasting life, which seem unavailable to anyone this side of paradise. Such unfulfilled desires serve as a universal motive for religion. In addition, the powerful want religion to support their position of privilege and their superior level of rewards, while the powerless want forms of religion more saturated with specific compensators and in tension with the sociocultural environment dominated by the powerful. (Stark, Bainbridge 1996 p315)
The way in which these desires play out, according to Stark, is in the opposing forces of secularization and revival. The slow relaxation of religious feeling in the process of secularization is continually interrupted and reversed by the formation of new high-tension cults and sects. Long established churches tend to live in a relaxed relationship with the surrounding society. But this relaxation dilutes the power of the compensatorssuch as the promise for eternal life in the next worldthat are the very essence of religion. In the relaxed climate of weak compensators new cults and sects get formed by people who seek either a new way to experience and express the rewards of religion or a way to intensify an old way by revival and purification. Following each Awakening or revival is another period of secularization, as the newly formed high tension cults and sects slowly reduce their distance from the surrounding culture and as the members of the sects become more powerful and want to connect with and influence the surrounding society. The mainstream churches of the United States that cater to the comfortable are secularized churches that were once high tension sects. The Presbyterians and Congregationalists were once Puritans; the Methodists once recruited members by revivals and hellfire sermons. The high-tension sects of the early twenty-first century like the Jehovahs Witnesses and the numerous Pentecostal churches will probably become, over the course of years, more relaxed and secularized. According to Starks theory, the Fourth Great Awakening should represent an unusually large crop of cults and sects that are filling the gap left by the secularizing main-line churches that provide for their members only weak and unconvincing general compensators for the desires that people experience for rewards not available in this world.
In the analysis of McLoughlin and Fogel, the story of the North American Awakenings was entwined with their own likely story. They wanted to construct a narrative that demonstrated the important role that progressive academicians and scholars came to fill in the twentieth century and ought to continue to fill in the twenty-first century. To confirm their importance, they differentiated the spiritual leaders of each Awakening into two groups: old lights and new lights, borrowing from the taxonomy of the first great religious schism in the Great Awakening of the 1740s between Old Side and New Light Presbyterians. Old lights were those that looked backwards; new lights were those that were trying to find a new way to express their spiritual search. It was a categorization that helped to shine a light of approval on progressive forces and disapprobation on the cruder aspects of religious revival and the darker side of the sawdust trail. It was particularly helpful to McLoughlin and Fogel in their analysis of the Third Great Awakening when they wanted to show the old-light preacher Billy Sunday as irrelevant and benighted and Social Gospelers as progressive and inspired. The problem is that such a division encourages the self-anointed new lights to regard their program as the progressive truth and the old light program as a reactionary lie. This happened in 1909 when retired Harvard President Charles Eliot in an address entitled The Future of Religion formulated a conception of the Social Gospel that read the old lights out of the magic circle of respectability. (Armstrong 2000 p170) He inaugurated the great schism between progressive Social Gospelers and conservative fundamentalists that persisted throughout the twentieth century.
The Spiral Dynamics perspective comprehends the analysis of McLoughlin and Fogel and then transcends it. It sees the old lights as religious leaders who appeal to the people of red consciousness and to their spiritual needs while the new lights, the Social Gospelers, are religious leaders who appeal to people of green consciousness. It does not find itself attempting to judge the progressiveness or benightedness of the different strains of spiritual experience. It judges them on their effectiveness at delivering spiritual nourishment to their adherents and helping with spiritual growth, and expects to find that the old-light leaders provided the simple offering of discipline and purpose that red impulsives need to acquire competence in the city, while the new-light leaders offered the vision of a universal community of caring and sharing that provides a menu of spiritual nourishment attractive to those entering a green consciousness. For the Fourth Great Awakening, the old light/new light analysis is clearly inadequate. The Fourth Great Awakening is too big, too multifaceted to be limited by such a cramped perspective.
The Spiral Dynamics perspective also comprehends the sociology of religion of Rodney Stark and extends it. Stark sees the cycle of religious revival and secularization as responding to self-conscious deprivation. His analysis does not permit much differentiation of the different kinds of deprivation, although he notes that the recruits to revivals of enthusiastic Christianity tend to be less powerful and less educated than those recruited to cults like Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation. The Spiral Dynamics perspective, armed with a more differentiated psychology, is able to develop a more nuanced analysis of the process of spiritual renewal. It sees the cycle of secularization and revival in the Christian churches as a continual process of renewal whereby red impulsives remake a secularizing church to respond to their needs for a high-tension religion to help them separate from their red roots, and make the journey on the road to the middle class. As they and their children assimilate into the middle class their need for a high-tension religion dissolves. Their sect relaxes into a church, and then the church relaxes into secularization. It sees religious groups like the Mormons, the Brompton Oratory, the Alpha Course, and the religion at work movement as evidence of blue conformists starting to deal with the challenge of orange consciousness, developing the courage to leave the safety of conformism and the moral idiocy of the welfare state into the adventure of a career. The Spiral Dynamics perspective sees the New Age movement, environmentalism, and the interest in eastern religions as the quest of orange creatives and green communitarians for their own high-tension cults to reflect their feeling of apartness from the mainstream middle-class society. Naturally, their spiritual needs at the orange/green transition would be different from the needs of red impulsives trying to cope with the challenge of making it in the city or the needs of blue purposives attempting a tentative break out of conformity.
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Click for Chapter 13: Repairing The Road
[The Axial Age] highlights the conception of a responsible self... [that] promise[s] man for the first time that he can understand the fundamental structure of reality and through salvation participate actively in it.
Robert N Bellah, "Religious Evolution", American Sociological Review, Vol. 29, No. 3.
[To make] of each individual member of the army a soldier who, in character, capability, and knowledge, is self-reliant, self-confident, dedicated, and joyful in taking responsibility [verantwortungsfreudig] as a man and a soldier. — Gen. Hans von Seeckt
MacGregor Knox, Williamson Murray, ed., The dynamics of military revolution, 1300-2050
Civil Societya complex welter of intermediate institutions, including businesses, voluntary associations, educational institutions, clubs, unions, media, charities, and churchesbuilds, in turn, on the family, the primary instrument by which people are socialized into their culture and given the skills that allow them to live in broader society and through which the values and knowledge of that society are transmitted across the generations.
Francis Fukuyama, Trust
[W]hen I asked a liberal longtime editor I know with a mainstream [publishing] house for a candid, shorthand version of the assumptions she and her colleagues make about conservatives, she didn't hesitate. Racist, sexist, homophobic, anti-choice fascists, she offered, smiling but meaning it.
Harry Stein, I Can't Believe I'm Sitting Next to a Republican
[T]he Liberal, and still more the subspecies Radical... more than any other in these latter days seems under the impression that so long as he has a good end in view he is warranted in exercising over men all the coercion he is able[.]
Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State
These emerge out of long-standing moral notions of freedom, benevolence, and the affirmation of ordinary life... I have been sketching a schematic map... [of] the moral sources [of these notions]... the original theistic grounding for these standards... a naturalism of disengaged reason, which in our day takes scientistic forms, and a third family of views which finds its sources in Romantic expressivism, or in one of the modernist successor visions.
Charles Taylor, Sources of the Self
Families helped each other putting up homes and barns. Together, they built churches, schools, and common civic buildings. They collaborated to build roads and bridges. They took pride in being free persons, independent, and self-reliant; but the texture of their lives was cooperative and fraternal.
Michael Novak, The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism
For [the left] there is only the state and the individual, nothing in between. No family to rely on, no friend to depend on, no community to call on. No neighbourhood to grow in, no faith to share in, no charities to work in. No-one but the Minister, nowhere but Whitehall, no such thing as society - just them, and their laws, and their rules, and their arrogance.
David Cameron, Conference Speech 2008
As far as the Catholic Church is concerned, the principal focus of her interventions in the public arena is the protection and promotion of the dignity of the person, and she is thereby consciously drawing particular attention to principles which are not negotiable...
[1.] protection of life in all its stages, from the first moment of conception until natural death; [2.] recognition and promotion of the natural structure of the family... [3.] the protection of the right of parents to educate their children.
Pope Benedict XVI, Speech to European Peoples Party, 2006
No lesson seems to be so deeply inculcated by the experience of life as that you should never trust experts. If you believe doctors, nothing is wholesome: if you believe the theologians, nothing is innocent: if you believe the soldiers, nothing is safe. They all require their strong wine diluted by a very large admixture of insipid common sense.
Lord Salisbury, Letter to Lord Lytton